Evolution used similar molecular toolkits to shape flies, worms, and humans

yes HGT (horizontal gene transfer) and epigenetics which change the expression of genes without changing the DNA code sequence itself answers a lot of questions about evolution and makes the old Darwinian tree a bit of a mess.

After Big Bang

Although separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution, flies, worms, and humans share ancient patterns of gene expression, according to a massive analysis of genomic data. Two related studies tell a similar story: even though humans, worms, and flies bear little obvious similarity to each other, evolution used remarkably similar molecular toolkits to shape them.

Tree of life poster (internet image) Tree of life poster (internet image)

Two related studies led by scientists at Harvard and Stanford, also published Aug. 28 in the same issue of the journal Nature, tell a similar story: Even though humans, worms, and flies bear little obvious similarity to each other, evolution used remarkably similar molecular toolkits to shape them.

However, the same Yale lab reports in a separate paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences dramatic differences between species in genomic regions populated by pseudogenes, molecular fossils of working genes.

The human, worm…

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